General Ielts Reading Material

IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers


About the Card:

1/3 off rail fares and so much more…

There’s every reason to be happy if you’re in the age group 16 to 25 because with this Railcard you’ll enjoy 1/3 off rail fares when you go by train. Here’s what you need to know:

  • The Railcard costs just £30. So after three or four trips, the card will have paid for itself. And over a year, you could save an average of £192.
  • Your 16-25 Railcard will save you 1/3 off a wide range of tickets.
A quick check to make sure you’re eligible…


If you’re between 16 and 25 years old, you’re eligible. In this case, you can buy your Railcard online using a valid debit or credit card, a valid UK driving license or international passport, and a digital passport-style photo for uploading. It will then be delivered for free within 5 working days.

A mature student?

To be eligible as a mature student and buy a 1-year Railcard, you will need:

  • To be attending a recognized college or university, for over 15 hours a week, at least 20 weeks a year (Unfortunately, Open University, distance learning, and part-time courses do not qualify).
  • Have an NUS card or College/University photo card as proof of identity.
  • To have the mature student section of the 16-25 Railcard application form completed by your College or University.
Get more for your money

If you’re between 16 and 25, and you know you’re going to be doing a lot of travelling over the next 3 years, why not buy a 3-year Railcard instead? It costs just £70, saving you £20 on the price of three 1-year Railcards. What’s more you can get a 3-year 16-25 Railcard right up until the day before your 24th birthday.

Minimum Fares & Time Restrictions

A £12 minimum fare applies for journeys starting between 4.30am-10am Monday to Friday excluding Advance Fares. This minimum fare does not apply on Public Holidays or throughout July and August.

Journeys that commence at 10:00 will receive the Railcard discount

If you travel regularly between 04:30 and 10:00 Monday to Friday, to work or your place of study for instance, a weekly or monthly season ticket could be the best way for you to save money. Railcards do not give discounts on season tickets.

Remember, not every ticket type is available for every journey that you might want to make, so it’s always best to check before booking. And be sure to read the full terms and conditions for using your Railcard.

Questions 1 – 8
IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.

  1. Having a rail card will mean your fares will be reduced by 
  2. The card should pay  after several trips
  3. Your debit or credit card, and UK driving license or international passport must be 
  4. Mature students at  are not eligible for the card. 
  5. A  may be a better choice if you plan to do many trips over 3 years. 
  6. At certain times of year the  is not applicable 
  7. There is no reduction in price available for 
  8. It is advisable  to  because there is no guarantee you can purchase the type of ticket you require. 

Read the text below and answer questions 9-14.

Buying the Rail Card:

The quickest and easiest way to buy is right here online.  All you need is:

  • A valid passport or UK driving licence to verify your identity
  • A digital passport-style photo saved to your computer, tablet or mobile phone
  • A debit or credit card
What happens next?

We aim to dispatch your Railcard within one working day of you ordering it, but it’s probably best to allow up to five working days for your 16-25 Railcard to arrive. It’ll be sent out free of charge by First Class post, but if you prefer, you have the option to pay for Special Delivery.

You’ll need the physical Railcard with you to be able to get a discount on your rail ticket, so be sure to leave enough time before your journey for the Railcard to reach you. If you need to travel straight away, you’re better off buying a 16-25 Railcard over the counter at your local staffed station.

At a staffed station ticket office

You can buy a 16-25 Railcard at any staffed station ticket office or National Rail-licensed Travel Agent. The main advantage of this is that you can do it on the day you are travelling.

If you’re applying at a station for the first time you’ll need to complete an application form here (you can pick this up at the station) and bring either of the following:

  • Your birth certificate
  • Passport (all nationalities accepted)
  • UK driving licence
  • National identity card

You’ll also need:

  • A passport-size photo
  • Proof of eligibility if applying as a mature student

If you’re renewing your Railcard, you’ll need to fill in the application form, and take your existing Railcard and Photocard. Automatically, These accept as proof of your age. If you are renewing an online Railcard at a station you will need proof of age as above.

Once you’ve bought your Railcard at a station, you can then register it online.  This will make it easier for you to renew or buy other cards online.

By phone

You can get your Railcard over the phone. Call our telesales service on 0345 3000 250 (0700hrs to 2200hrs every day except Christmas Day). Calls cost no more than calls to geographic numbers (01 or 02). Please note, you’ll also need to submit your photo via email.

Questions 9-14
IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

Do the following statements agree or disagree with the information given in the text?

If the statement agrees with the information If the statement contradicts with the information
If there is no information on this
  • The travel card should not take more than 5 working days to arrive once ordered. 
  • You can still travel and get a discount on your first trip if your railcard has not arrived.
  • A benefit of applying to a station office is that staff can help you with the form.
  • At least two pieces of identification have required the first time you apply. 
  • A current railcard and photocard can use as evidence of age when renewing a railcard. 
  • If you apply by phone you can talk to a customer sales representative. 


Questions 15-21


The text below has seven sections, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below the reading. 

Write the correct number i-x in the boxes below.

There are more headings than sections so you will not use them all.

Managing the health and safety of seating in the workplace


Workstation design should be based on a careful assessment of all aspects of the job to ensure that each task can be carried out safely, comfortably and as efficiently as possible. A well-designed workstation allows the worker to sit at a comfortable height and position in relation to the work. 


Finding the best kinds of chairs for employees can involve carrying out user trials. For example, people of different shapes and sizes could try out a sample seat for a period. Some suppliers may be willing to supply seating on approval. Nevertheless, it is recommended that employees and safety representatives are consulted on any changes to be made to the workplace or workstation, and this includes seating. 


To ensure that seating is safe and has a good service life, it must be treated properly. It is bad practice to put undue pressure on the armrests by sitting on them or leaning too heavily over them. Rocking backward and forwards may cause damage or cause the seat to become unsafe. Employers need to ensure that seating remains in a clean, safe condition, checking seating regularly for signs of damage or excessive wear.


Employers need to be able to spot the signs that suggest seating is uncomfortable. Simply asking employees if their seat is comfortable is sometimes enough to assess whether a problem exists. It is better for employers to take the initiative in providing suitable seating, and not wait until complaints are received or until workers take time off with back pain. Employees also need to play their part by telling their employers if seating is unsuitable or unsafe.


Employers need to ensure that work is organized to allow people to be seated wherever possible. In some circumstances, however, sitting may not be possible, for instance where work has to be done over a large area or where constant handling of heavy objects cannot be avoided. In this case, employers need to ensure that workers take adequate rest breaks and that suitable comfortable seating is provided during those breaks.


Particular arrangements or design may need to be taken into consideration for some employees so that a disabled person is not at any substantial disadvantage compared with a non-disabled person. For instance, workers using wheelchairs may need to have the workstation access widened and the height of their workstation modified and pregnant workers may require seating that can be adjusted without requiring awkward, bent postures.


Employers must make sure they have assessed any dangers or possible harm in the workplace, including seating. This involves identifying hazards and deciding whether enough has been done to prevent harm to people. Achieving this involves certain steps that employers can take such as looking for the hazards, deciding who might be harmed, evaluating the dangers, and recording the findings.

List of Headings:

i Prevention is better than cure

ii Dealing with complaints

iii Seating maintenance

iv How to do a risk assessment

v Adaptations for pregnant employees

vi Should people sit or stand?

vii Planning the workstation

viii Individuals with special needs

ix Selection of seating

x Taking a break   

A Section
B Section
C Section
D Section  
E Section  
F Section  
G Section  
Questions 22-28
IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

Complete the sentences below. 

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer. 

NHS Hospital Job Interview Guidelines for Managers

IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

Interview Process

All candidates should receive at least 7 days’ notice of the interview. Hiring Managers should provide interview details to the Human Resources (HR) department in a timely way so that applicants can be well prepared for interview. 

All interview panels should have at least two members to ensure objectivity. The chair of the interview panel will normally be the Appointing Manager. Where interviews for specialist or senior clinical positions take place, the Appointing Manager may wish to include an outside assessor. At least one member of the interview panel must have attended recruitment and selection training. 

The interview panel should meet at least 20 minutes prior to the interview to discuss the structure of the interview and the questions each panel member will ask. Depending on the seniority of the post, interviews should last between 30-60 minutes. If any other method of selection (e.g. a test) or a tour has been arranged, candidates will be notified in the interview letter. 

Interviews should take place in a quiet room away from ringing phones and disruptions. Panel members should ensure other members of their department/colleagues know they are interviewing so that they are not interrupted. 

The HR Department will circulate the interview papers to all panel members electronically at least two working days before interviews are due to take place, unless alternative arrangements have been made. Managers should ensure they have checked the relevant documents such as passport, NI number, and any qualification certificates before the candidate leaves.

Note taking

It is vital to have a written record of what took place during an interview to avoid final assessments being subjective, to help remember candidates and to compare candidates answers. At least one member of the panel should take notes during the interview. Candidates should be told at the start of their interview that notes will be taken.

Panel members will also have the Interview Report Form against which they can determine whether or not individuals have or have not met the essential and desirable criteria from the person specification. 

Appointment Process

Although it is recommended that the panel reach a consensus on their decision to appoint, ultimately the decision resides with the Appointing Manager. 

The completed Interview Decision Form should be sent with all notes, selection test information, interview questions and the application forms to the HR Department. 

Upon receipt of the documentation the HR team one working day later will issue a conditional offer of employment, subject to employment checks to the candidate. 

It is important to have more than one person on the interview panel for maintenance

If alternative selection methods are to be used, the candidate must be  in advance

All the interview documents should be distributed to panel members by the  prior to the interviews

Taking notes is beneficial because it means that the panel will be able to  the responses given by candidates

The  ensures members can assess whether the essential and desirable criteria were met

The final appointment  not with the panel but with the Appointing Manager

Any offer of work will be  on the successful candidate passing the employment checks.


Questions 29-35
IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

The text below has eight paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraph contains the information given below the text?

Write the correct letter, A–H, in boxes, 29–35.

The Growth of Pilates


Pilates is a physical fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates, after whom it was named. Pilates called his method “Contrology”. It is practiced worldwide, especially in Western countries such as Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. As of 2005, there were 11 million people practicing the discipline regularly and 14,000 instructors in the United States. In his book Return to Life through Contrology, Joseph Pilates presents his method as the art of controlled movements, which should look and feel like a workout (not a therapy) when properly manifested. If practiced with consistency, Pilates improves flexibility, builds strength and develops control and endurance in the entire body. It puts emphasis on alignment, breathing, developing a strong core, and improving coordination and balance.


 Precision is essential to correct Pilates.The focus is on doing one precise and perfect movement, rather than many halfhearted ones. Here Pilates reflects common physical culture wisdom, gaining more from a few energetic efforts than from many listless ones. The goal is for this precision to eventually become second nature and carry over into everyday life as grace and economy of movement.


 Joseph Pilates accompanied his method with a variety of equipment, for which he used the term “apparatus”. Each apparatus designed to help accelerate the process of stretching, strengthening, body alignment and increased core strength started by the mat work. The best-known and most popular apparatus today, the Reformer, originally called the Universal Reformer, aptly named for “universally reforming the body”. Eventually, Pilates designed other apparatus, including the Cadillac, Wunda Chair, High “Electric” Chair, Spine Corrector, Ladder Barrel, and Pedi-Pole.


Pilates published two books related to his training method: Your Health: A Corrective System of Exercising That Revolutionizes the Entire Field of Physical Education in 1934, and Return to Life Through Contrology in 1945. A number of versions of Pilates are taught today and the majority are based on up to nine principles. Frank Philip Friedman and Gail Eisen, two students of Romana Kryzanowska, published the first modern book on Pilates, The Pilates Method of Physical and Mental Conditioning, in 1980 and in it they outlined six “principles of Pilates”. These have been widely adopted—and adapted—by the wider community. The original six principles were concentration, control, center, flow, precision, and breathing.


Breathing is important in the Pilates method. In Return to Life, Pilates devotes a section of his introduction specifically to breathing “bodily house-cleaning with blood circulation”. He saw considerable value in increasing the intake of oxygen and the circulation of this oxygenated blood to every part of the body. This he saw as cleansing and invigorating. Proper full inhalation and complete exhalation were key to this. He advised people to squeeze out the lungs as they would wring a wet towel dry.

In Pilates exercises, the practitioner breathes out with the effort and in on the return. In order to keep the lower abdominals close to the spine; the breathing needs to be directed laterally, into the lower rib cage. Pilates breathing is described as a posterior lateral breathing, meaning that the practitioner is instructed to breathe deep into the back and sides of his or her rib cage. When practitioners exhale, they are instructed to note the engagement of their deep abdominal and pelvic floor muscles and maintain this engagement as they inhale. Pilates attempts to properly coordinate this breathing practice with movement.


In 2015 the Australian Government’s Department of Health published a meta study which reviewed the existing literature on 17 alternative therapies including Pilates, in order to determine if any were suitable for being covered by health insurance. The review found that due to the small number and methodologically limited nature of the existing studies, the effectiveness of Pilates is uncertain. Accordingly In 2017 the Australian government named Pilates as a practice that would not qualify for insurance subsidy, saying this step would “ensure taxpayer funds are expended appropriately and not directed to therapies lacking evidence”.


For the treatment of lower back pain, low quality evidence suggests that while Pilates is better than doing nothing, it is no more effective than other forms of physical exercise. There is some evidence regular sessions can help with the conditioning of the abdominal muscles of healthy people, when compared to doing no exercise. There is no good evidence it helps improve balance in elderly people.


Pilates is not professionally regulated.[17]In October 2000 “Pilates” was ruled a generic term by a U.S. federal court, making it free for unrestricted use. As a result of the court ruling, the Pilates Method Alliance had formed as a professional association for the Pilates community. Its purpose was to provide an international organization to connect teachers, teacher trainers, studios, and facilities dedicated to preserving and enhancing the legacy of Joseph Pilates and his exercise method by establishing standards, encouraging unity, and promoting professionalism.

  • The way in which other practioners built on and developed Pilates’ methods 
  • Reasons why people may not get compensation if they are injured doing Pilates 
  • The quality of movement is more important than the quantity 
  • Pilates benefits the whole body if practiced regularly 
  • A legal ruling that led to Pilates establishing itself as a globally recognised organisation 
  • The way that the learning of Pilates can be speeded up through incorporating other devices into a workout 
  • Identifies the book that sets out the complex way in which Pilates is not just about movement 
Questions 36-40

IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the text for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 36–40.

IELTS General Reading Practice Test 1 With Answers

Summary Completion

Breathing is seen as central to the Pilates method as it ensures the (36) ………….. of blood to all parts of the body. In practicing pilates, one is advised to breath out during the strenuous part of the move, but then breath in once one returns to position. At the same time as inhaling it is also important to be aware of and to maintain the (37) ………….. of abdominal and pelvic floor muscles. It is the coordination of breathing practice with movement that Pilates aims to achieve.

However, an examination of Pilates and a number of other (38)…………..  found that due to the small amount of research and the methodological limitations of the research the (39)………………..  of Pilates is questionable. This lack of evidence meant that Pilates would not receive (40)………………  as it would not be an appropriate use of taxpayer funds.